Alpha-cyclodextrin is often used as a stabilizer and thickener in the food industry due to its hydrophobic and hydrophilic cavity structure. In recent years, studies have shown that alpha-cyclodextrin can be used as a dietary fiber as well as a food additive to control sugar and reduce fat. Today, Xiao Li takes you to learn about a new health guard -- alpha-cyclodextrin
1. Alpha-cyclodextrin and its fellows
Cyclodextrin (CD, Cyclodextrin) is a cyclooligosaccharide produced by Cyclodextrin glucosyl transferase acting on starch substrate. It usually contains 6~12 D-(+) -glucopyranose units, among which, and -cyclodextrin containing 6, 7 and 8 glucose units are the most studied ones.
2. Safety of -cyclodextrin
Small amounts of alpha-cyclodextrin can be produced during the fermentation of beer and bread, which means we started consuming them thousands of years before they were discovered.
In-depth toxicological and physiological studies have shown that alpha-cyclodextrin is safe and non-toxic, without ADI limitations, and can be safely used in a variety of foods.
FDA evaluates alpha-cyclodextrin as GRAS(generally considered safe); In China, -cyclodextrin in GB 2760-2014 is also included in the list of food additives that can be appropriately used in various types of food according to production requirements.
3. The fate of -cyclodextrin in gastrointestinal tract
Due to the special ring structure, enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract are unable to act on the glycosidic bonds of -cyclodextrin, which means that -cyclodextrin cannot be digested by the gastrointestinal tract. Oral alpha-cyclodextrin is fully absorbed in the small intestine at very low levels (about 1%) and is quickly excreted from the urine.
The rest of -cyclodextrin can be fermented by intestinal flora after arriving at the colonized segment of e. coli, producing products such as beneficial short-chain fatty acids and being absorbed by the large intestine.
In addition, supplementation of -cyclodextrin can also regulate intestinal flora. Daily consumption of small doses of -cyclodextrin can significantly increase the number of bacteroides, lactobacillus, bifidobacterium and other beneficial bacteria in the intestinal tract, and improve the intestinal ecological balance.
4. -cyclodextrin and blood glucose
With rising living standards, more and more high-glycemic foods are hitting the table. After satisfying their appetites, people increasingly suffer from metabolic diseases such as diabetes and insulin resistance.
The mechanism of these diseases may begin with an increase in postprandial blood sugar, which directly stimulates the body to produce too much insulin. Over time, insulin resistance gradually develops. In the daily diet, if can reduce postprandial blood sugar and insulin level, will better protect the body from the related metabolic disease.
Oral administration of alpha-cyclodextrin reduces postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, resulting in more stable blood glucose and insulin levels, which is good news for healthy people, people with pre-diabetes and people with diabetes.
Alpha-cyclodextrin could not be degraded by amylase, and could even directly inhibit amylose hydrolysis by binding to the active site of amylase, which enabled alpha-cyclodextrin to effectively inhibit postprandial glucose fluctuation.
Higher doses of alpha-cyclodextrin also increase satiety, slow stomach emptying, and help reduce sugar absorption, which is consistent with the effects of most dietary fiber.
Currently, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has confirmed that alpha-cyclodextrin can reduce the postprandial blood glucose rise in starchy diets. If at least 5 grams of alpha-cyclodextrin can be consumed for every 50 grams of starch, manufacturers can label the products as hypoglycemic.
Alpha - cyclodextrin and blood lipids
Obesity has been on the rise over the past three decades, with conservative estimates putting the number of obese people in the country at more than 100 million. Excess calories, especially dietary fat intake, are a major contributor to obesity and are closely linked to cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Therefore, how to reduce the intake of dietary fat has become a hot topic.
Oral administration of -cyclodextrin can reduce dietary fat intake, reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood, increase adiponectin and leptin levels, improve the distribution of fatty acids in plasma, and do not affect the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
Alpha-cyclodextrin can form a stable complex with dietary fat in a high proportion. This complex cannot be hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes and can be discharged from the human body intact through feces, thus greatly reducing the bioavailability of fat.
Alpha-cyclodextrin can also reduce the micellar solubility of cholesterol by precipitation lecithin, and thus hinder the absorption of cholesterol in the small intestine.
In addition, alpha-cyclodextrin can selectively interfere with the absorption of inflammatory fats such as trans fats and saturated fats, without affecting the absorption of polyunsaturated fats.
Currently, alpha-cyclodextrin as the main functional ingredient of weight loss products has been produced in the United States (not approved in China), and has received enthusiastic market feedback. In Japan, the consumption of alpha-cyclodextrin to reduce fat has been gradually accepted and recognized.
With the increasing improvement of people's living standard, the concept of healthy diet has been deeply rooted in people's mind. People are increasingly pursuing a healthy diet with low glycemic index and low dietary fat. Alpha-cyclodextrin, as a safe dietary fiber, has been attracting more and more attention. It is believed that in the near future, cyclodextrin will be able to shine in the field of health food.